Sakkara is one section of the great necropolis of Memphis, the
Old Kingdom capital and the kings of the 1st Dynasty as well as
that of the 2nd Dynasty. are mostly buried in this section of
the Memphis necropolis. It has been of constant interest to
5th Dynasty kings such as Userkaf (pyramid) and Djedkare-Izezi
built their pyramids at Sakkara. The last king of 5th Dynasty,
Unas, decorated his burial chamber with the famous 'Pyramid
Texts', spells written to help the king ascend to the heavens
and descend again, which reveal the relationship of the king to
the gods. 6th Dynasty kings such as Pepi I, Merenre and Pepi II
built their pyramids to the south of Sakkara.
Sakkara is also famous for its private Old Kingdom tombs, which
contain beautiful and revealing scenes men force- feeding geese,
cattle crossing a canal, men dragging a statue on a sled to the
tomb. The best-known tombs are those of Ti, Kagemni, the 'Two
Brothers', and Ptahhotep; the most famous is that of Meruruka.
Pyramid of Djoser (Zoser)
Sakkara is best known for the Step Pyramid, the oldest known of
Egypt's 97 pyramids. It was built for King Djoser of the 3rd
Dynasty by the architect and genius Imhotep, who designed it and
its surrounding complex to be as grand as it was unique and
revolutionary. Imhotep was the first to build stone tombs in
honor of the king's majesty..
On the Pyramid, most of the outer casing is gone. In some places
the core masonry has disappeared as well. The original structure
was an underground burial chamber with a vertical shaft leading
to it. The entrance was sealed with a 3 ton piece of granite.
The face of the mastaba was a fine Tura limestone. It was then
enlarged to make the square mastaba rectangular. Afterwards, the
process to make it a true step pyramid was begun to make it into
the six-tiered pyramid which is there today. A Tura limestone
face was added on. On the northern side of the pyramid, a few
blocks of the casing remain.
Pyramid of Unas (Unis)
(Unis)(c. 2356 - 2323 BC) was the last king of the Fifth
Dynasty. The pyramid dedicated to this king lies to the south of
the Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara.
The Pyramid of Unas (Unis)
is in poor condition however, the burial chambers are worth the
In this chamber, you will find the earliest Egyptian
funerary texts carved into the walls and filled with a blue
pigment. These are referred to as the Pyramid Texts.
the rituals and hymns that were said during the burial . They
were intended to help the pharaoh's soul in the afterworld to
find Re, the sun god. Before this time, nothing was engraved in
the walls of the pyramids. The pyramid, when it was complete
stood about 62 ft (18.5 m). The core of the pyramid was loose
blocks and rubble and the casing was of limestone.